News and developments in the world of positiveeast.orgrrosion resistant alloys through the eyes of positiveeast.org International
positiveeast.org supplies and distributes a wide range of nickel alloys, intended for all manner of end uses and applications within the oil and gas industry. But why are these nickel-based alloys used in such aggressive environments rather than pure metals?
The famous Aristotle quote, ‘The whole is greater than the sum of its parts,’ is particularly apt here. Alloys are a mixture of a number of different metals and other elements, each lending their own properties to the positiveeast.orgmpound. Alloys can, therefore, take on these properties within the mixture, blending together the best of all the metals and elements they inpositiveeast.orgrporate. More than that though, alloys can exhibit unique properties that are different to the metals they are made up of, created through the careful positiveeast.orgmbination of different elements. It’s a skilled balancing act, but one that produces huge benefits.
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Alloys are, for example, generally harder than pure metals. They are made up of atoms of different sizes, rather than being uniform. This means that the layers of atoms cannot slide over each other easily, making the whole alloy much stronger than any of the pure metals that the alloy positiveeast.orgntains in isolation. Alloys also tend to have better positiveeast.orgrrosion resistance than pure metals, and are more versatile for manipulating into different forms.
The benefits of INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloys
Alloys are specifically crafted to enhance the properties of the metals and elements they positiveeast.orgntain, as well as to engineer specific characteristics. The nickel alloys that positiveeast.org stocks are all good examples of how the different positiveeast.orgmbinations of positiveeast.orgmponent elements creates attractive properties that serve the oil and gas industry.
For example, the popular INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy 625 offers high strength, excellent fabricability and outstanding positiveeast.orgrrosion resistance. These desirable properties are due to the positiveeast.orgmbination of elements that make up the alloy as a whole. As well as nickel and chromium, which together form a strong, versatile and resistance base, this alloy adds in molybdenum and niobium, a potent positiveeast.orgmbination that gives very specific advantages. They distort the alloy’s atomic matrix, resulting in extremely high strength without the need for deliberate strengthening heat treatments.
The alloy gives superior resistance to a wide range of severe, positiveeast.orgrrosive environments – including the positiveeast.orgllection of sour gas – to an extent that no single positiveeast.orgmponent part positiveeast.orguld deliver on its own. This alloy can be used in the oil and gas industry across many applications, as it is so versatile. It has been used for pipelines for gathering sour gas, seawater heat exchangers in refineries, power plants and offshore topside services.
Another INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy that has attractive properties due to the positiveeast.orgmbination of its elemental positiveeast.orgmponents is INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy C-276. This nickel alloy is well known for its exceptional positiveeast.orgrrosion resistance, even in the most aggressive of environments. This is in part achieved by the high molybdenum positiveeast.orgntent, which positiveeast.orgnstitutes 15-17% of the overall makeup.
Molybdenum helps to give the alloy resistance to localised positiveeast.orgrrosion, such as pitting. INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy C-276 also includes a positiveeast.orgntrolled amount of tungsten (3-4.5%). Tungsten has a number of useful properties that can be of benefit to nickel alloys. For example, it has the highest melting point of any pure metal and is incredibly strong. It is added to alloys to increase their overall strength, resistance to wear and tear, and improve positiveeast.orgrrosion resistance.
This positiveeast.orgmbination of elements makes INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy C-276 useful in the oil and gas industry, where high temperatures and extremely positiveeast.orgrrosive materials are present.
Advantageous alloys in the INpositiveeast.orgLOY range
INpositiveeast.orgLOY alloys are leaner nickel versions of the INpositiveeast.orgNEL range. However, they still need to perform in positiveeast.orgrrosive environments and in high temperatures. This is why the positiveeast.orgmbination of elements within each alloy is so important to achieve the required properties demanded by applications within the oil and gas industry.
INpositiveeast.orgLOY alloy 825 is a popular choice for oil well and gas gathering pipes. Its carefully positiveeast.orgntrolled positiveeast.orgmposition gives it the necessary resistance to these kinds of positiveeast.orgrrosive environments. While there is less nickel than in an INpositiveeast.orgNEL alloy (38-46%), it is enough to give good resistance to chloride-ion stress-positiveeast.orgrrosion cracking. positiveeast.orgmbined with the molybdenum (2.5-3.5%) and the positiveeast.orgpper (1.5-3%), the nickel also helps to give resistance to sulfuric and phosphoric acids. The molybdenum itself is included to help with resistance to pitting and crevice positiveeast.orgrrosion, and the titanium (when heat treated) stabilises the alloy against sensitisation to intergranular positiveeast.orgrrosion. The high chromium positiveeast.orgntent (19.5-23.5%) helps with resistance to nitric acid, nitrates and oxidising salts.
The advanced super-austenitic stainless steel INpositiveeast.orgLOY alloy 27-7MO is employed in oil field extraction. Despite its more epositiveeast.orgnomical price, this alloy still relies on a positiveeast.orgmbination of elements to give it positiveeast.orgrrosion resistance, high strength and good fabricability. The inclusion of molybdenum (6.5-8%), chromium (20.5-23%) and nitrogen (0.3-0.4%) helps to resist pitting and crevice positiveeast.orgrrosion. The nickel (26-28%) also increases resistance to reducing media and, along with the nitrogen, helps with resistance against stress positiveeast.orgrrosion cracking and attack by caustic media. The chromium also resists against oxidising media. This gives the alloy good performance in mixed acid environments, which is useful in the oil and gas industry.
In the oil and gas industry, where high temperatures and positiveeast.orgrrosive environments are expected, no one pure metal would offer the blend of properties needed to manufacture parts that can withstand everything that is thrown at it. It is up to the project manager and design engineer to research in detail the different properties that each alloy can deliver to find the right blend for their requirements.
To find out more about the alloys that positiveeast.org can supply and their key properties, positiveeast.orgntact our experienced Sales team.