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Momentum and Impulse

Momentum can be defined as “mass in motion.”

**Momentum = mass * velocity**

In physics, the symbol for the quantity momentum is the small case “p”; thus, the above equation can be rewritten as

**p = m * v**

The standard metric unit of momentum is the kg*m/s.

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Momentum is a vector quantity

**Impulse = Change in momentum**

If an object experiences a force for a specific amount of time it will result the object”s mass either speeds up or slows down, which is a change in momentum.

This force on an object for a specific amount of time is called an Impulse.

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**Equation: J = F * t **

**1.A 1,200-kilogram car traveling at 10 meters per secondhits a tree and is brought to rest in 0.10 second. What is the magnitude of the average force acting on the car to bring it to rest? Fnet = -120,000N**

**2.What is the speed of a 1.0 Ã— 103-kilogram car that has a momentum of 2.0 Ã— 104 kilogram****?****meters per second east? V = 20 m/s East**

**3.In the diagram below, a 60-kilogram rollerskater exerts a 10-newton force on a 30-kilogram rollerskater for 0.20 second. What is the magnitude of the impulse applied to the**

**30-kilogram rollerskater? **

**J = 2 N*s**

**4.Which situation will produce the greatest change of momentum for a 1.0-kilogram cart?**

**1. accelerating it from rest to 3.0 m/s**

**2. accelerating it from 2.0 m/s to 4.0 m/s**

**3. applying a net force of 5.0 N for 2.0 s**

**4. applying a net force of 10.0 N for 0.5 s**

**5.Calculate the magnitude of the impulse applied to a 0.75-kilogram cart to change its velocity from 0.50 meter per second east to 2.00 meters per second east. Change in p = 1.25 Kgm/s**

The Law of Momentum Conservation

The total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision.

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**ELASTIC COLLISION M1 * V1 + M2 * V2 = M1 * V1 + M2 * V2 **

**INELASTIC COLLISION M1 * V1 + M2 * V2 = (M1+M2) * V**

**6.3000-kg truck moving with a velocity of 10 m/s hits a 1000-kg parked car. The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in motion at 15 m/s. Assuming that momentum is conserved during the collision, determine the velocity of the truck after the collision. V = 5m/s**

**7.At the circus, a 100-kilogram clown is fired 15 meters per second from a 500-kilogram cannon. What is the recoil speed of the cannon? **

**V2 = -3m/s**

**8. ****On a snow-covered road, a car with a mass of 1.1Ã—103 kilograms collides head-on with a van having a mass of 2.5Ã—103 kilograms traveling at 8.0 meters per second. As a result of the collision, the vehicles lock together and immediately come to rest. Calculate the speed of the car immediately before the collision.**

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