Silver

Element 47 of Periodic table is Silver with atomic number 47, atomic weight 107.8682. Silver, symbol Ag, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Silver is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Silver is coinage metals. Know everything about Silver Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (Greek:άργυρος árguros, Latin:argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

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Silver Facts

Read key information and facts about element Silver

Name Silver
Atomic Number 47
Atomic Symbol Ag
Atomic Weight 107.8682
Phase Solid
Color Silver
Classification transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 11
Group Name copper family
Period in Periodic Table 5
Block in Periodic Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 4d10 5s1
Melting Point 961.78 °C
Boiling Point 2162 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 18, 1>
CAS Number CAS7440-22-4

Neighborhood
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Silver on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 47 to find Silver on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silver on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trend

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Silver with other elements

Silver History

The element Silver was discovered by unknown in year 3000 BC in unknown location . Silver derived its name from English word (argentum in Latin)

Silver Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Silver in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.4e-07
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 7.9×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans 1×10-8%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Silver

The solid state structure of Silver is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
408.53 408.53 408.53 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m
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Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Silver Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silver atoms have 47 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 18, 1> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.


Atomic Number 47
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 47
Number of Protons 47
Mass Number 108
Number of Neutrons 61
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 18, 1>
Electron Configuration 4d10 5s1
Valence Electrons 4d10 5s1
Oxidation State -2;-1 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Silver - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silver - neutral Silver atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silver atom is 4d10 5s1. The portion of Silver configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

See more: What Is The Most Active Element In Group 17 ? What Is The Most Active Element In Group 17

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silver

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silver atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1

Atomic Structure of Silver

Silver atomic radius is 165 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 153 pm.

Atomic Radius

165 pm (1.65 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2829551954 cm3
Covalent Radius 153 pm (1.53 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 172 pm
Neutron Cross Section 63.6 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Silver

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Silver Chemical Properties: Silver Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Silver is 125.6 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 1.93
ElectronAffinity 125.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Silver

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silver

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 731
2 2070
3 3361

Silver Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Silver Physical Properties

Density 10.49 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2829551954 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 83 GPa
Shear Modulus 30 GPa
Bulk Modulus 100 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.37

Hardness of Silver - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 251 MPa
Brinell Hardness 24.5 MPa

Silver Electrical Properties

Silver is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Silver

Electrical Conductivity 6.2×107 S/m
Resistivity 1.6×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Silver Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 430 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000189 K-1

Silver Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.27×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.45×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.38e-05

Optical Properties of Silver

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Silver

Speed of Sound 2.6×103 m/s

Silver Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silver

Melting Point 1234.93 K (961.78 °C)
Boiling Point 2435 K (2162 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Silver

Heat of Fusion 11.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 255 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Silver Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silver

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Silver has 2 stable isotope - 107Ag, 109Ag.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
93Ag
94Ag
95Ag
96Ag
97Ag
98Ag
99Ag
100Ag
101Ag
102Ag
103Ag
104Ag
105Ag
106Ag
107Ag 51.839% Stable N/A
108Ag
109Ag 48.161% Stable N/A
110Ag
111Ag
112Ag
113Ag
114Ag
115Ag
116Ag
117Ag
118Ag
119Ag
120Ag
121Ag
122Ag
123Ag
124Ag
125Ag
126Ag
127Ag
128Ag
129Ag
130Ag

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-22-4
RTECS Number RTECSVW3500000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-22-4
CID Number CID23954
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVW3500000

Compare Silver with all Group 11 elements

Silver vs Copper Silver vs Gold Silver vs Roentgenium

Compare Silver with all transition metal elements

Silver vs Scandium Silver vs Titanium Silver vs Vanadium Silver vs Chromium Silver vs Manganese Silver vs Iron Silver vs Cobalt Silver vs Nickel Silver vs Copper Silver vs Zinc Silver vs Yttrium Silver vs Zirconium Silver vs Niobium Silver vs Molybdenum Silver vs Technetium Silver vs Ruthenium Silver vs Rhodium Silver vs Palladium Silver vs Cadmium Silver vs Hafnium Silver vs Tantalum Silver vs Tungsten Silver vs Rhenium Silver vs Osmium Silver vs Iridium Silver vs Platinum Silver vs Gold Silver vs Mercury Silver vs Rutherfordium Silver vs Dubnium Silver vs Seaborgium Silver vs Bohrium Silver vs Hassium Silver vs Meitnerium Silver vs Darmstadtium Silver vs Roentgenium Silver vs Copernicium