Learning Objectives

The arts of the Italian Renaissance was prominent throughout Europe because that centuries.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Florence college of painting came to be the dominant style during the Renaissance. Renaissance artworks depicted more secular subject matter than previous imaginative movements.Michelangelo, da Vinci, and also Rafael are among the best known painters of the High Renaissance.The High Renaissance was complied with by the Mannerist movement, known for elongated figures.Key Termsfresco: A kind of wall painting in which color pigments are combined with water and applied to wet plaster. Together the plaster and pigments dry, castle fuse together and the paint becomes a part of the wall itself.Mannerism: A layout of art emerged at the finish of the High Renaissance, identified by the deliberate distortion and also exaggeration the perspective, specifically the elongation that figures.

The Renaissance began during the 14th century and also remained the overcome style in Italy, and also in lot of Europe, until the 16th century. The ax “renaissance” was emerged during the 19th century in bespeak to define this duration of time and also its accompanying imaginative style. However, human being who were living during the Renaissance did see themselves as different from their medieval predecessors. V a selection of messages that survive, we understand that world living throughout the Renaissance witnessed themselves as different largely since they to be deliberately trying to imitate the Ancients in art and also architecture.

Florence and the Renaissance

When girlfriend hear the term “Renaissance” and photo a style of art, friend are most likely picturing the Renaissance layout that was arisen in Florence, which ended up being the overcome style that art throughout the Renaissance. During the middle Ages and the Renaissance, Italy was separated into a number of different city states. Each city state had actually its very own government, culture, economy, and also artistic style. There were many different formats of art and architecture the were developed in Italy during the Renaissance. Siena, which was a political ally of France, because that example, maintained a Gothic aspect to its arts for much of the Renaissance.

Certain problems aided the advancement of the Renaissance format in Florence throughout this time period. In the 15th century, Florence became a significant mercantile center. The manufacturing of cloth drove your economy and also a vendor class emerged. Humanism, i m sorry had occurred during the 14th century, remained critical intellectual activity that influenced art production as well.

Early Renaissance

During the early Renaissance, artists started to disapprove the byzantine style of spiritual painting and strove to develop realism in your depiction of the human kind and space. This aim toward realism started with Cimabue and also Giotto, and reached its optimal in the arts of the “Perfect” artists, such together Andrea Mantegna and also Paolo Uccello, who created works the employed one allude perspective and played v perspective for your educated, art knowledgeable viewer.

During the at an early stage Renaissance we likewise see important advances in subject matter, in addition to style. While religious beliefs was an important element in the everyday life of human being living throughout the Renaissance, and also remained a driving variable behind imaginative production, we additionally see a brand-new avenue open up to panting—mythological subject matter. Numerous scholars suggest to Botticelli’s Birth the Venus as the very very first panel paint of a supernatural scene. While the tradition itself likely arose from cassone painting, which generally featured scene from mythology and also romantic texts, the advance of superordinary panel painting would open up a human being for imaginative patronage, production, and also themes.

Birth that Venus: Botticelli’s birth of Venus was amongst the most crucial works of the early on Renaissance.

High Renaissance

The period known as the High Renaissance to represent the culmination of the purposes of the beforehand Renaissance, namely the realistic depiction of figures in space rendered through credible motion and also in an accordingly decorous style. The most famous artists from this phase space Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and also Michelangelo. Their paintings and frescoes are amongst the many widely recognized works of arts in the world. Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Raphael’s The school of Athens and also Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling paintings are the masterpieces that this period and embody the facets of the High Renaissance.

Marriage that the Virgin, by Raphael: The painting depicts a marital relationship ceremony in between Mary and Joseph.


High Renaissance painting developed into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the ethics of High Renaissance, often tended to represent elongated numbers in illogical spaces. Contemporary scholarship has recognized the volume of Mannerist art to convey strong, regularly religious, emotion wherein the High Renaissance failure to carry out so. Some of the key artists of this period are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and also Raphael’s pupil, Giulio Romano.

Art and also Patronage

The Medici family used their large fortune to regulate the Florentine political system and sponsor a collection of artistic accomplishments.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship between art, patronage, and also politics during the Renaissance

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAlthough the Renaissance was underway prior to the Medici family involved power in Florence, your patronage and also political support of the arts helped catalyze the Renaissance into a completely fledged social movement.The Medici wealth and influence initially acquired from the textile trade guided by the guild that the Arte della Lana; through financial superiority, the Medici overcame their city’s government.Medici patronage was responsible because that the majority of Florentine art during their reign, together artists normally only made their works as soon as they received commissions in advance.Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is renowned to have been the patrons of the famed Galileo Galilei, that tutored many generations of Medici children.Key TermsLorenzo de’ Medici: one Italian statesman and also de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic, that was one of the most powerful and enthusiasm patrons of the Renaissance.patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an company or individual bestows top top another, particularly in the arts.


It has long been a issue of debate why the Renaissance started in Florence, and also not in other places in Italy. Scholar have noted several features distinctive to Florentine cultural life that may have caused such a cultural movement. Countless have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a bank family and later ducal judgment house, in patronizing and stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an enormous amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen come commission works from the leading artists of Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Functions by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and Filippino Lippi had actually been commissioned in addition by the convent di mountain Donato agli Scopeti the the Augustinians stimulate in Florence.

The Medici residence Patronage

The residence of Medici was an Italian bank family, politics dynasty, and also later royal home that first began come gather importance under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic of Florence during the an initial half that the 15th century. Your wealth and also influence initially derived from the textile profession guided through the guild that the Arte della Lana. Like other signore families, they conquered their city’s government, they were able to lug Florence under your family’s power, and also they developed an setting where art and also Humanism can flourish. They, in addition to other family members of Italy, such as the Visconti and also Sforza of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, and also the Gonzaga the Mantua, fostered and inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance.

The biggest success of the Medici to be in the sponsorship of art and also architecture, greatly early and also High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici to be responsible because that the majority of Florentine art throughout their reign. Your money was far-reaching because throughout this period, artists normally only made their works once they got commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici, the very first patron that the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi for the restoration of the Basilica of mountain Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder’s notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most far-ranging addition to the perform over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was claimed to be exceptionally fond the the young Michelangelo, inviting the to examine the household collection of neck sculpture. Lorenzo also served as patron that Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his very own right, and an writer of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage.


The Medici House: Medici family members members placed allegorically in the entourage that a king native the 3 Wise men in the Tuscan landscape in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

In architecture, the Medici space responsible for part notable functions of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel, and the Palazzo Medici. Later, in Rome, the Medici Popes continued in the household tradition by patronizing artists in Rome. Pope Leo X would certainly chiefly commission works from Raphael. Pope Clement VII i was delegated Michelangelo to paint the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel just before the pontiff’s death in 1534. Eleanor of Toledo, princess that Spain and wife the Cosimo i the Great, purchase the Pitti palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who erected the Uffizi collection in 1560 and also founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (“Academy that the art of Drawing”) in 1563. Marie de’ Medici, widow of Henry IV that France and also mother that Louis XIII, is the topic of a i was delegated cycle that paintings recognized as the Marie de’ Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg royal residence by court artist Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–1623.

Although nobody of the Medici themselves to be scientists, the family members is renowned to have actually been the patrons the the renowned Galileo Galilei, that tutored many generations the Medici children and also was critical figurehead because that his patron’s quest for power. Galileo’s patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II once the Inquisition accused Galileo the heresy. However, the Medici household did purchased the scientist a safe haven for plenty of years. Galileo called the 4 largest moons the Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored, back the name Galileo used are no the names right now used.

Leonardo da Vinci

While Leonardo da Vinci is admired together a scientist, an academic, and an inventor, that is most famed for his accomplishments as the artist of several Renaissance masterpieces.

Learning Objectives

Describe the works of Leonardo da Vinci that demonstrate his many innovative approaches as one artist

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAmong the qualities that make da Vinci’s work distinctive are the innovative approaches that he supplied in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge that anatomy, his innovative usage of the human kind in figurative composition, and his usage of sfumato.Among the most well known works produced by da Vinci is the small portrait titled the Mona Lisa, recognized for the elusive smile on the woman’s face, brought about by the truth that da Vinci subtly shadowed the corners that the mouth and also eyes so the the specific nature that the smile cannot it is in determined.Despite his well known paintings, da Vinci was no a prolific painter; he was a prolific draftsman, maintaining journals complete of little sketches and also detailed drawings recording all manner of points that interested him.Key Termssfumato: In painting, the applications of subtle layers the translucent repaint so the there is no visible shift between colors, tones, and often objects.

While Leonardo da Vinci is considerably admired as a scientist, one academic, and also an inventor, the is most famed for his success as the artist of several Renaissance masterpieces. His paintings were groundbreaking for a selection of reasons and his works have been imitated through students and also discussed at good length through connoisseurs and also critics.

Among the characteristics that do da Vinci’s work unique are the innovative approaches that he supplied in laying on the paint, his in-depth knowledge that anatomy, his use of the human form in figurative composition, and his use of sfumato. All of these features are existing in his most commemorated works, the Mona Lisa, The last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks.


The Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1486: This paint shows the Madonna and Child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and an angel, in a rocky setting.

The critical Supper

Da Vinci’s most commemorated painting of the 1490s is The last Supper, which was painted because that the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The paint depicts the last meal shared by Jesus and also the 12 Apostles whereby he announces that among the them will certainly betray him. As soon as finished, the paint was acclaimed as a masterpiece the design. This work-related demonstrates something the da Vinci did really well: taking a an extremely traditional subject matter, such as the critical Supper, and fully re-inventing it.

Prior come this moment in arts history, every representation of the last Supper followed the very same visual tradition: Jesus and also the Apostles seated at a table. Judas is inserted on the opposite next of the table of everyone else and is effortlessly established by the viewer. Once da Vinci painted The last Supper he placed Judas on the very same side the the table as Christ and the Apostles, who are displayed reacting come Jesus together he announces that among them will betray him. They are portrayed as alarmed, upset, and also trying to identify who will commit the act. The viewer also has to identify which number is Judas, that will betray Christ. By portraying the step in this manner, da Vinci has infused psychology into the work.

Unfortunately, this masterpiece that the Renaissance began to deteriorate automatically after da Vinci perfect painting, due mostly to the painting method that he had actually chosen. Instead of utilizing the method of fresco, da Vinci had used tempera over a ground the was mostly gesso in an effort to bring the subtle effects of oil repaint to fresco. His new method was no successful, and resulted in a surface ar that was subject to mold and flaking.

The last Supper: Leonardo da Vinci’s last Supper, although lot deteriorated, displayed the painter’s mastery the the human type in figurative composition.

Mona Lisa

Among the works produced by da Vinci in the 16th century is the small portrait well-known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, “the laughing one.” In the present era it is may be the most famed painting in the world. Its reputation rests, in particular, ~ above the elusive laugh on the woman’s face—its mysterious quality brought around perhaps by the fact that the artist has actually subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the exact nature of the laugh cannot it is in determined.

The shadowy high quality for i m sorry the job-related is renowned became called sfumato, the applications of subtle layers of translucent repaint so the there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and often objects. Other features found in this job-related are the unadorned dress, in i m sorry the eyes and also hands have actually no competition from other details; the dramatic see background, in i beg your pardon the civilization seems to be in a state the flux; the subdued coloring; and also the incredibly smooth nature that the painterly technique, use oils, but applied much like tempera and blended ~ above the surface ar so that the brushstrokes room indistinguishable. And again, da Vinci is innovating top top a kind of painting here. Portraits were very common in the Renaissance. However, portraits of women were constantly in profile, which was seen as proper and also modest. Here, da Vinci present a portrait the a woman who not only encounters the viewer however follows them through her eyes.

Mona Lisa: In the Mona Lisa, da Vinci incorporates his sfumato method to create a shadowy quality.

Virgin and also Child with St. Anne

In the paint Virgin and also Child with St. Anne, da Vinci’s ingredient again choose up the template of numbers in a landscape. What makes this painting unusual is the there room two obliquely collection figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St. Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ kid as that plays approximately with a lamb, the authorize of his own impending sacrifice. This paint influenced plenty of contemporaries, including Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto. The patterns in its ingredient were adopted in specific by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese.

Virgin and also Child v Saint Anne: Virgin and Child with St. Anne (c. 1510) by Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre Museum.


Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and also architectural design.

Learning Objectives

Discuss Michelangelo’s success in sculpture, painting, and also architecture

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMichelangelo developed his colossal marble statue, the David, the end of a single block that marble, which developed his prestige as a sculptor that extraordinary technical skill and also strength of symbolic imagination.In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that the ceiling and also The critical Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, where he portrayed a facility scheme representing Creation, the Downfall the Man, the Salvation of Man, and the genealogy of Christ.Michelangelo’s chief contribution to Saint Peter’s Basilica to be the use of a Greek Cross kind and an outside masonry of substantial proportions, through every corner filled in by a stairwell or tiny vestry. The effect is a consistent wall-surface that appears broken or urgent at various angles.Key Termscontrapposto: The standing position of a human figure where many of the weight is inserted on one foot, and the other leg is relaxed. The result of contrapposto in arts makes figures look an extremely naturalistic.Sistine Chapel: The best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Michelangelo was a 16th century Florentine artist renowned because that his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design. His most renowned works room the David, the Last Judgment, and the Basilica of Saint Peter’s in the Vatican.

Sculpture: David

In 1504, Michelangelo was commissioned to develop a colossal marble statue showing David together a prize of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, David, developed the artist’s prominence as a sculptor the extraordinary technical skill and also strength that symbolic imagination. David was produced out that a single marble block, and also stands bigger than life, together it was initially intended to adorn the Florence Cathedral. The work differs indigenous previous depictions in that the Biblical hero is not shown with the head the the slain Goliath, together he is in Donatello’s and Verrocchio’s statues; both had actually represented the hero was standing victorious over the head that Goliath. No previously Florentine artist had omitted the giant altogether. Rather of appearing victorious end a foe, David’s challenge looks tense and ready for combat. The tendons in his neck stand out tautly, his brow is furrowed, and his eye seem to emphasis intently on something in the distance. Veins bulge the end of his lowered best hand, but his human body is in a serene contrapposto pose, and he dead his sling casually thrown over his left shoulder. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were assumed of together a distinctive function of antique sculpture.

The David by Michelangelo, 1504: Michelangelo’s David stand in contrapposto pose.

The sculpture to be intended come be put on the exterior that the Duomo, and also has become one that the most known works of Renaissance sculpture.

Painting: The last Judgement

In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that his occupational in the Sistine Chapel. That was initially commissioned to paint tromp-l’oeil coffers after ~ the initial ceiling occurred a crack. Michelangelo lobbied for a different and also more complex scheme, representing Creation, the Downfall the Man, the Promise that Salvation v the prophets, and also the ancestry of Christ. The work is component of a bigger scheme of decoration within the chapel the represents much of the theory of the Catholic Church.

The composition eventually consisted of over 300 figures, and also had at its facility nine episodes from the publication of Genesis, separated into three groups: God’s development of the Earth, God’s development of Humankind, and their loss from God’s grace, and lastly, the state of humankind as represented by Noah and his family. Twelve men and women that prophesied the resulting the Jesus space painted ~ above the pendentives supporting the ceiling. Among the most well known paintings ~ above the ceiling space The production of Adam, Adam and Eve in the Garden that Eden, the an excellent Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and the Cumaean Sibyl. The ancestors of Christ are painted about the windows.

The fresco of The Last judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII, and Michelangelo labored on the task from 1536–1541. The job-related is situated on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel, which is no a traditional placement for the subject. Typically, last judgement scene were inserted on the exit wall surface of churches as a method to remind the viewer that eternal punishments as they left worship. The Last referee is a depiction of the 2nd coming that Christ and the apocalypse; wherein the souls of humanity rise and also are assigned come their various fates, as judged by Christ, surrounding by the Saints. In contrast to the previously figures Michelangelo painted top top the ceiling, the numbers in The critical Judgement are heavily muscled and are in much much more artificial poses, demonstrating how this job-related is in the Mannerist style.

In this job-related Michelangelo has rejected the orderly depiction of the last judgement as created by Medieval heritage in donate of a swirling scene of chaos together each heart is judged. Once the paint was revealed the was heavily criticized for its inclusion of classical imagery and also for the lot of nude numbers in rather suggestive poses. The ill reception that the work-related received might be tied to the counter Reformation and also the board of directors of Trent, which lead to a preference for more conservative spiritual art devoid of classical references. Return a number of figures were made more modest with the enhancement of drapery, the changes were no made till after the death of Michelangelo, demonstrating the respect and also admiration that was afforded to him during his lifetime.

The critical Judgement: The fresco that The Last referee on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII. Michelangelo operated on the project from 1534–1541.

Architecture: St. Peter’s Basilica

Finally, although other architects to be involved, Michelangelo is offered credit for designing St. Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo’s chief donation was the usage of a symmetrical setup of a Greek Cross type and an external masonry of massive proportions, with every corner filled in by a stairwell or little vestry. The impact is of a continuous wall surface ar that is urgently or broken at various angles, doing not have the right angles that commonly define adjust of direction in ~ the corners that a building. This exterior is surrounding by a large order that Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly various angles to every other, in maintaining with the ever-changing angles of the wall’s surface. Over them the vast cornice ripples in a continuous band, providing the illustration of keeping the whole structure in a state that compression.

St. Peter’s Basillica: Michelangelo designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica top top or prior to 1564, although it to be unfinished as soon as he died.


Mannerist artists began to disapprove the harmony and also ideal proportions of the Renaissance in favor of irrational settings, artificial colors, unclear subject matters, and also elongated forms.

Learning Objectives

Describe the Mannerist style, exactly how it different from the Renaissance, and also reasons why that emerged.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque.The artists who came a generation ~ Raphael and also Michelangelo had a dilemma. They might not surpass the great works the had already been produced by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is as soon as we begin to see Mannerism emerge.Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) to represent the change from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style.Key TermsMannerism: layout of arts in Europe from c. 1520–1600. Mannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. No every artist painting during this duration is considered a Mannerist artist.

Mannerism is the name offered to a layout of art in Europe indigenous c. 1520–1600. Mannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this period is taken into consideration a Mannerist artist, however, and there is lot debate among scholars over whether Mannerism have to be thought about a separate activity from the High Renaissance, or a stylistic phase of the High Renaissance. Mannerism will certainly be treated as a separate art movement right here as over there are plenty of differences in between the High Renaissance and the Mannerist styles.


What provides a occupational of art Mannerist? an initial we must recognize the ideals and also goals the the Renaissance. During the Renaissance artists to be engaging through classical antiquity in a brand-new way. In addition, they developed theories on perspective, and in all means strived to develop works of arts that to be perfect, harmonious, and also showed appropriate depictions that the natural world. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo are taken into consideration the artist who reached the greatest accomplishments in art throughout the Renaissance.

The Renaissance emphasize harmony and beauty and also no one could create an ext beautiful works than the good three artists noted above. The artists who came a generation after had actually a dilemma; they might not surpass the good works the had already been created by da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. This is once we begin to watch Mannerism emerge. Younger artist trying to execute something new and different began to disapprove harmony and also ideal proportions in favor of irrational settings, fabricated colors, unclear topic matters, and elongated forms.

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) to represent the shift from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style. Take for example his Deposition indigenous the Cross, one altarpiece that was painted for a chapel in the Church of Santa Felicita, Florence. The figures of Mary and Jesus show up to be a straight reference to Michelangelo’s Pieta. Although the job-related is dubbed a “Deposition,” there is no cross. Scholars likewise refer to this job-related as the “Entombment” but there is no tomb. This absence of clarity on subject issue is a hallmark of Mannerist painting. In addition, the setting is irrational, virtually as if that is no in this world, and also the color are far from naturalistic. This work can not have been developed by a Renaissance artist. The Mannerist activity stresses various goals and this occupational of art by Pontormo demonstrates this new, and also different style.

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Pontormo, Deposition from the Cross, 1525-1528, Church that Santa Felicita, Florence: This work of arts by Pontormo demonstrates the hallmarks of the Mannerist style: unclear topic matter, irrational setting, and artificial colors.